In the nineteenth century, the moment one stopped breathing was the ultimate indication of dying, and a mirror held to the mouth, unfogged, was the indication that the soul had exited the body. Adams is deliberately flip, but the German philosopher Heidegger instructed, in all seriousness, that expertise shouldn’t be technological or machine-like.” For him expertise was an unhiding” – a revealing – of an interior actuality that’s revealed by mechanical embodiment.
While it may be considered as a design science it also addresses fundamental issues of learning, educating and social organization and therefore makes use of the total range of recent social science and life sciences methodology.
Point zero seems a bit broad – or, at the least, your instance of an orchestra as know-how does not appear quite right to me. Technology” appears to be a narrower idea than culture” and an orchestra appears to fit more within the category of cultural artifact (or perhaps aesthetic artifact) than know-how.
In one respect, the time period has come to imply one thing narrower – the above definition would admit artwork or politics as means of achieve, but though those activities are permeated by technology now, most of us would not think about them to be examples or subsets of technology.
Therefore, educational expertise is based on theoretical data drawn from different disciplines (communication, schooling, psychology, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus experiential knowledge drawn from educational practice.